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Criminal justice is the system of practices, and organizations, used by national and local governments, directed at maintaining social controldeterringand controlling crime, and sanctioning those who violate laws with criminal penalties and rehabilitation. The primary agencies charged with these responsibilities are law enforcement (police and prosecutors), courts, defense attorneys and local jails and prisons which administer the procedures for arrest, charging, adjudication and punishment of those found guilty. When processing the accused through the criminal justice system, government must keep within the framework of laws that protect individual rights. The pursuit of criminal justice is, like all forms of "justice", "fairness" or "process", essentially the pursuit of an ideal. Throughout history, criminal justice has taken on many different forms which often reflect the cultural mores of society.
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The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms is a bill of rights entrenched in the Constitution of Canada. It forms the first part of the Constitution Act, 1982. The Charter is intended to protect certain political and civil rights of people in Canadafrom the policies and actions of all levels of government. It is also supposed to unify Canadians around a set of principles that embody those rights. The Charter was preceded by the Canadian Bill of Rights, which was introduced by the government of John Diefen baker in 1960. However, the Bill of Rights was only a federal statute, rather than a constitutional document, and therefore limited in scope and easily amendable. Hence, Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau's government enacted the Charter in 1982. One of the most notable effects of the adoption of the Charter was to greatly expand the scope of judicial review. The Court system of Canada, when confronted with violations of Charter rights, have struck down unconstitutional statutes or parts of statutes. However, the Charter granted new powers to the courts to enforce more creative remedies and to exclude more evidence in trials. As a result, the Charter has attracted both passionate support from liberals and criticisms by opponents of increased judicial power.
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Credit: Daniel Schwen
A portrait of a senior police officer in Hamburg, wearing the new blue uniform in accordance with the policy of using the same colour for police uniforms and vehicles throughout the European UnionLaw enforcement in Germany is divided into two groups: the federal police and the state police.
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Julius Rosenberg (May 12, 1918 – June 19, 1953) and Ethel Greenglass Rosenberg (September 28, 1915 – June 19, 1953) were American Communists who received international attention when they were executed having been found guilty of conspiracy to commit espionage in relation to passing information on the American nuclear bomb to the Soviet Union. The guilt of the Rosenbergs and the appropriateness of their sentence have been controversial and a subject of perennial debate amongst scholars. However, information released since the end of the Cold War seems to confirm the charges of espionage against Julius and, to a lesser extent, Ethel.
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Schools of thought: Chicago School · Classical School · Conflict Criminology · Environmental Criminology · Feminist School · Frankfurt School · Integrative Criminology · Italian School · Left Realism · Marxist Criminology · Neo-Classical School · Positivist School · Postmodernist School · Right Realism
Theories: Anomie · Differential Association Theory · Deviance · Labeling Theory · Rational Choice Theory · Social Control Theory · Social Disorganisation Theory · Social Learning Theory · Strain Theory · Subcultural Theory · Symbolic Interactionism· Victimology
Types of crime: Blue-collar crime · Corporate crime · Felony · Juvenile crime · Misdemeanor · Organised crime · Political crime · Public order crime · Public order case law in the U.S. · State crime · State-corporate crime · White-collar crime
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